This opening up of urban form was, of course, long anticipated. The green, spatially abundant, open city underwrote the practices of Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier, Ludwig Hiberseimer, and Ivan Leonidov, as well as those of Patrick Geddes, Lewis Mumford, Patrick Abercrombie, and N.A. Miliutin. The cities they imagined and drew dissolved into the landscape and integrated the urban and natural world into a new continuity. The open city was to achieve not just spatial integration but also integration between urban and natural systems that would reestablish an ecological balance between the artificial and natural world, long thrown off by the excesses of industrialization. This impulse called Regionalism , came into being in the mid-1920s twenties with the founding of the Regional Planning Association of America. While none of these architects or theorists managed to realize a veritable Regional City – indeed, their work often had the opposite effect – the idea has never fallen out of currency. Admired by ecologists and subject to recurring revivals (most recently under the label Landscape Urbanism) the open, regional city remains part of the operating logic of our suburban worldview. The Regional model is background noise; it goes unquestioned until such evidence appears that brings its assumptions to our attention. To wit, the blue and red maps that have measured, among many other things, the degree to which the American city has become profoundly alienated from its adjoining territory.