For Tafuri, Mannheim fell prey to the “ideology of planning” held by advocates of both democratic liberalism and democratic socialism in the 1920s and 1930s: “What the theories of Weber, Max Scheler, or Mannheim sanctioned as a ‘necessary’ shift of method in the structure of intellectual work, what Keynes and later Schumpeter lead back to the terms of an economic plan which presupposes a highly articulated functioning of capital in its totality…was the transformation of traditional ideology into utopia, as a prefiguration of an abstract final moment of development coincident with a global rationalization, with a positive realization of the dialectic.” Tafuri, Manfredo. Architecture and Utopia: Design and Capitalist Development. Translated by Luigi La Penta. (The MIT Press. Cambridge, MA: 1976). Pg. 62