a radical resource-based plan which included “multiple neighborhood-based centers determined by available resources”

In 1919, Manning’s talents took him to Birmingham, Alabama, where he worked on a new design for the city. He recommended a radical resource-based plan which included “multiple neighborhood-based centers determined by available resources” (Karson, 2001). He also makes note of the importance of parks throughout the city stating that “the cities that are best designed have about one-eight of their area in parks and about one acre to 75 people” (Manning, 1919). This approach was in direct contrast to the then popular City Beautiful movement which emphasized monumental civic centers and Beaux Arts architecture style public buildings (Karson, 2001). The architectural design of the Chicago Columbian Exposition was based in the City Beautiful movement, but now, on his own, Manning decided on a different course following his own landscape theories which were based on the natural available resources. This idea was the basis for his creation of the “wild garden” which he applied to many of his landscape designs.

via Warren H. Manning – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.