On the racial zoning system in Birmingham & Warren Manning

“The 1920s brought continued efforts to fashion a legally defensible racial zoning system in tandem with comprehensive city planning. Also, race-based planning spread into new places. Birmingham, Alabama, was one of the new converts to racial zoning as well as the broader version of race-based planning. Although the city lacked an official planning body, it hired Warren Manning, a Boston landscape architect, as its planning consultant and released the “City Plan of Birmingham” in 1919. The Manning plan offered a series of general recommendations about land use, transportation, and civic improvements for a city that during the previous decade increased its land area sevenfold and its population by 150,000 persons.”

From THE RACIAL ORIGINS OF ZONING IN AMERICAN CITIES by Christopher Silver in Urban planning and the African American community: in the shadows