when the borders begin to constitute a grid ranging over the new social space, and cease simply to border it from the outside

“Borders have been the anti-democratic condition for that partial, limited democracy which some nation-states enjoyed for a certain period, managing their own internal conflicts (sometimes exporting them too, but that is very much a process which requires a border line). (…) As soon as borders become differentiated and multiple once again — once they begin to constitute a grid ranging over the new social space, and cease simply to border it from the outside — then the alternative lies between an authoritarian, and indeed violent, intensification of all forms of segregation, and a democratic radicalism which has as its aim to deconstruct the institution of the border.”

“What is a border?” in Politics and the Other Scene,
Étienne Balibar